Sunday, August 23, 2020
Friday, August 21, 2020
Interconnection Billing System of Grameenphone Ltd. Paper 1.0 Introduction In mid 2008, Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC) declared that rearrangement of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s telecom interconnection design according to International Long Distance Telecommunication Services (ILDTS) Policy 2007 must be finished by the mid of August, 2008 (BTRC, 2008a). This declaration by the telecom controller committed significant telecom administrators (for example portable and fixed systems) to take important measures to finish the re-association task inside the cutoff time while guaranteeing there is no or least supporter bother and income spillage because of this redesign. Grameenphone Ltd., the biggest mobile phone administrator of the nation having an endorser base of around 17 Million at that period (BTRC, 2008b), needed to move toward this administrative order with incredible significance as interconnection end charge is the wellspring of second biggest income stream for the organization (Grameenphone Annual Reports, 2008 Ã¢â¬ 2011). It propelled a cross-useful undertaking to finish the interconnection rebuild task easily. This Project Team distinguished winning interconnection charging procedures and frameworks of the association as one of the key improvement zones. It was felt that current in-house created instruments came up short on the adaptability to oblige the adjustment in arrange design. The board needed substitution of manual charging related undertakings through completely robotized frameworks to guarantee quicker exchanges and age of modified reports. After through appraisal of different choices inside the apportioned financial plan by specialists from significant cross-utilitarian groups, Intec Interconnection Billing System (IIBS) was secured from one of the main sellers of the world, Intec Systems Ltd. (CSGI, 2012). This paper centers around the assessment of IIBS, a hello there tech data framework and its commitment to Grameenphone Ltd., an innovation based association. Significant wellsprings of data are my encounters as an individual from this charging framework usage venture group and later use it for around 03 years; and meetings and email trade with center specialized people and different partners of IIBS. In certain regions, preparing materials gave by the charging framework seller and web sections have been counseled too. 2.0 Overview of Intec Interconnection Billing System 2.1 Telecom Interconnect and Related Facts: Bangladesh Context Ã¢â¬Å"The term Interconnect in the media transmission world methods a plan of action where distinctive contending communication suppliers exist together and interconnect to each otherÃ¢â¬ (4gbilling Inc., 2012). According to Bangladesh Telecommunication Act-2001, any telecom administrator must guarantee Ã¢â¬Ëany-to-anyÃ¢â¬â¢ network so its subscriber(s) can helpfully speak with the subscriber(s) of other telecom operator(s) (BTRC, 2001c); therefore, telecom administrators interconnect each other straightforwardly or through interconnection trades (it is the situation in Bangladesh after revamping of national interconnection engineering in 2008) and furthermore set up availability with outside administrators through global doors. Figure 1: Block graph of Interconnectivity (adjusted from ILDTS PolicyÃ¢â¬â¢07, BTRC 2008a) After foundation of between availability, telecom administrators pay each other interconnection get to charges for the traffic (for example voice call, SMS, MMS) produced by its subscriber(s) to the next at a rate commonly arranged or authorized by the controller. This interconnection installment and related errands, for example count of interconnect traffic volume began and got, age of solicitations, and approval of other operatorsÃ¢â¬â¢ solicitations are directed by their shared interconnection understandings and additionally important mandates from the telecom controllers (Interconnection Regulations, 2004). 2.2 Interconnect Billing Systems With the overall pattern of telecom de-guideline, interconnectivity becomes busy and telecom administrators are needing interconnection charging framework offering itemized investigation of interconnection. The target, obviously, is to settle on Ã¢â¬Å"smart and all around educated business choices to improve income streamsÃ¢â¬ (4gbilling Inc., 2012). The significant undertakings achieved by utilizing Interconnect Billing framework are: - Inter-administrator settlement for traffic traded with different administrators, - Resolution of interconnection charging questions, - Generation of different reports; - Detection of different telecom fakes and aid the board of those. 2.3 Technological Features of Intec Interconnect Billing System (IIBS) IIBS lies at the downstream of Mediation Server in the telecom arrange engineering. It works under customer server model. The servers are controlled by HP-UX (Hewlett-Packard, 2011). It has double server: one houses Database different runs Application (Intec Training Material, 2008). Figure 2: Network Diagram of IIBS (adjusted from 4Gbilling Inc., 2012) In the customer side PCs, there are various modules for receipt age, detailing, and compromise of CDRs from other administrator, and so forth. These customers are associated with the IBS application server utilizing LAN (Local Area Network). Customer PCs may run Microsoft Windows working frameworks. The customers can get to IIBSÃ¢â¬â¢s application through Graphical User Interface (GUI) or through electronic Oracle Discoverer (a redid apparatus) says Mr. Raiyan Karim, System Engineer, IBS of Grameenphone Ltd. (Karim, 2012). A group inside the Information Technology division are relegated the assignment to design and work IIBS while the clients are spread everywhere throughout the association running from Finance to Regulatory Affairs capacities. 2.4 Categorisation of IIBS as Information System As a data framework, Intec Interconnect Billing System (IIBS) can be sorted in a few viewpoints. From equipment point of view (Bocij et al, 2008: Chapter 3), IIBS has the essential catch/input innovation being used is the LAN availability with an upstream application server, extremely amazing CPU as processor, 25 Terabyte online attractive circle stockpiling and yield can be taken through either screen show, e-report or printed papers. From programming point of view (Bocij et al, 2008: Chapter 4), IIBS is an application programming, to be explicit, application to process enormous databases containing CDRs. From the executives level points of view (Laudon and Laudon, 2012), IIBS can be sorted principally as an exchange handling framework as it manages examples of interconnection traffic traded (for example call/SMS/MMS made to got from different administrators). This framework serves prerequisites of operational administration and at the same time, the yields from this framework has a more extensive dissemination to various administration levels even up to top officials basically because of significance of related business action (interconnectivity) for media transmission industry. From hierarchical capacity (Laudon and laudon, 2006) points of view, IIBS is an Information Technology business zone explicit data framework. It handles computerized client call records for age of interconnection charging subtleties. From the points of view of reach (Boddy et al, 2005: 37-38), IIBS is distinguished as an intra-hierarchical May be. In spite of the fact that its center use exists in the IT division of Grameenphone, this framework is as often as possible got to from different pieces of the associations for example Fund, Marketing, Regulatory Affairs, and so forth. Also, as IIBS adds to accomplish generally hierarchical objectives for example dependable settlement of interconnection income, help in creating market contributions, it can without much of a stretch be named as an intra-hierarchical Seems to be. 3.0 Supported Organizational Processes The authoritative procedures bolstered by IIBS can be examined by utilizing two methodologies: a) CIPSODAR model of data framework (Heeks, 2011a) and b) use and utilizations of PC based IS by hierarchical level (Bocij et al, 2008: P 45). 3.1 CIPSODAR on IIBS IIBS catches handled CDR (Call Detail Records) from Mediation server (Ã¢â¬Å"a framework used to change over information of certain datatypes to different datatypes, for the most part for charging purposesÃ¢â¬ , Wikipedia, 2012). These interceded CDRs are feed into IIBS as sources of info. Figure 3: IIBS on CIPSODAR model (adjusted from Heeks, 2011a) The caught CDRs need to contain in any event 06 data fields which are in numeric structure (Intec Systems, 2008): i.Unique CDR recognizable proof no. related with each call made to got from different administrators, ii.phone no. of call beginning supporter, iii.phone no. of call beneficiary supporter, iv.call start time, v.call length, vi.Intelligent arrange checking used to distinguish post-paid or prepaid supporter. These intervened CDRs are additionally prepared by IIBS, for example ordering dependent on different pre-set standards for example paid ahead of time, post-paid, beginning administrator, ending administrator; arranging thereof dependent on every standard, lastly incorporating. IIBS has surprising preparing limit as it handles around 70 Million CDRs in like clockwork (Karim, 2012). IIBS utilizes two kinds of capacity: one is online which has immense capacity ability to store CDRS for back to back 04 months and another is more established CDRs which are moved to attractive tapes for documenting. Yield from IIBS is charging subtleties classified dependent on interconnect administrator, approaching call stream, active call stream, or span for example day-wise or month-wise. Beneficiaries can create receipt to be given to different administrators or altered reports utilizing the customer side invoicing or revealing modules of IIBS. The yields created from IIBS information help the association to choose its interconnection business system for example incorporate extra interconnect limit with some administrator or detail strategy for example elevate calls to different administrators by bringing down client charge. Activities incorporate usage of inner business methodology or legally binding commitments of interconnection understanding. The res
Monday, July 13, 2020
New Nonfiction Book Releases You Should Add to Your Nightstand I enjoy losing myself in a fun piece of fiction as much as the next person. But these past few years have felt like a golden age for new nonfiction book releases. Clever cultural criticisms. Brilliant take-downs of systemic rot. Fascinating historical narratives. Heartbreaking memoirs. Creative nonfiction is having a moment, and I am here for it. In a year that has already brought us memoirs like T Kira Maddens Long Live the Tribe of Fatherless Girls and Jayson Greenes Once More We Saw Stars (hold on one moment while I cryâ¦again), it can be tempting to start looking toward 2020 to see what else is coming down the pike. But dont count the rest of 2019 out yet. New Nonfiction Book Releases to Watch For There are a ton of new nonfiction book releases still to come before the year is out. Here are the ones Im most looking forward to. How to Be a Family by Dan Kois Im fascinated by how parents in other cultures raise their children, so this recently released reported memoir immediately piqued my interest. In it, the author and his family travel everywhere from New Zealand to the Netherlands to Kansas in order to get out of their self-described East Bubble and see how other families live. Can place change a family? I cant wait to find out! Drawing Power edited by Diane Noomin This comics anthology, also recently released, contains contributions from more than 60 female comics creators, who use the form to share their experiences with sexual violence and harassment. Ive enjoyed previous issue-driven comics anthologies (Love Is Love and Comics for Choice both come to mind), so Im curious to see if this one feels just as strong. Breathe: A Letter to My Sons by Imani Perry As the neurotic helicopter mother of a 5-year-old, reading about the lessons parents hope to impart to their children just wrecks me. This recent release from Perry, the Hughes-Rogers Professor of African American Studies at Princeton University, contains the hopes and fears she carries for her sons as Black children in an often hateful society. The Seven Necessary Sins for Women and Girls by Mona Eltahawy The #MeToo movement has spawned a lot of powerful nonfiction on sexual violence and womens anger, and this latest book looks particularly interesting. In it, Eltahawy advocates for female empowerment through an embrace of what she calls the seven necessary sins that women and girls are not supposed to commit: anger, ambition, profanity, violence, attention-seeking, lust, and power. Motherhood So White by Nefertiti Austin As a white thirtysomething mother living in suburban New Jersey, its easy for me to find myself reflected in various depictions of motherhood. But when Austin, a single African American, sets out to adopt a Black baby boy, she finds that the lens through which our culture looks at motherhood only serves to exclude her and the family she wants to build. Out on Sept. 20 from Sourcebooks, Motherhood So White delves into the history of adoption within African American communities and also interrogates stereotypes about single, Black motherhood. Sorted by Jackson Bird Ever since reading Gender Queer (so fantastic!),Ive been hungry for other memoirs that just as capably convey the confusion and the angst that can exist around gender identity. On September 24, Tiller Press released this memoir from Jackson Bird, an LGBTQ+ advocate who came out as a transgender man at the age of 25. This is the story of what brought him to this pointâ¦and what came after. Know My Name by Chanel Miller You may recognize the name Brock Turner, but until recently the woman he assaulted was known only as Emily Doe. On September 24, Viking released Chanel Millers memoir of assault, and of a justice system that does more to protect perpetrators than victims. How We Fight for Our Lives by Saeed Jones Moving into October (October 8, Simon Schuster), we have a coming-of-age memoir from poet Saeed Jones, whose name you may recognize either from his previous book (poetry collection Prelude to Bruise) or his various roles at BuzzFeed. In his latest, he writes about growing up as a young, gay, black man in the south. Unfollow by Megan Phelps-Roper At this troubled time in our history, it can be different to understand and empathize with those who choose to be a part of communities built around hate. Which is why Im so curious about Ropers memoir about growing up in the Westboro Baptist Church (which her grandfather founded!) and, eventually, leaving it. Its set to be released by Farrar, Straus and Giroux on October 8. Commute by Erin Williams I do so love me a good graphic memoir, and Williamss memoir on female shame, and on being either sexualized or ignored on a daily basis, deeply resonates. It drives me to distraction having to wait until October 8 (Abrams ComicArts) to read this one. Burn It Down edited by Lilly Dancyger Ive already mentioned that female anger has been the anchor of several recent books. On October 8, Dancyger releases her own collection through Seal Press. Im especially excited about this one because of the work Dancyger has done as an editor at both Narratively and Catapult. She is discerning in the work she chooses to develop and publish, and I expect that the pieces shes chosen for this anthology will be just as powerful. She Said by Jodi Kantor and Megan Twohey You may have noticed a pattern in this list. Im drawn to books that interrogate the systemic issues behind rape culture. I cant help it. Im a journalist who writes about female sexuality. So I will absolutely be picking up a copy of She Said on October 10 (Penguin Press), written by the two journalists who broke the story around Harvey Weinsteins serial sexual abuse. Dear Girls by Ali Wong This book (out October 15 from Random House) is on this list because I saw both of Wongs standup comedy specials on Netflix and, because they were so damn relatable and so damn funny, determined that I would follow her to the ends of the earth. The end. The In-Betweens by Mira Ptacin Heres another author I would follow anywhere. Her gorgeously written memoir, Poor Your Soul, was basically a master class in what a memoir could be. Lucky for me, her next book sounds just as amazing. This time, she looks outside the personal and reports on the longest-running camp devoted to Spiritualists and mediums. I mean, how cool is that!? Its out October 29 from Liveright and promises to be a fascinating read. Eat Joy edited by Natalie Eve Garrett Hell, looking at this cover brings me joy and I havent even opened the book yet. On October 29, Black Balloon Publishing releases this collection of illustrated essays on how comfort food can help you through difficult times. Contributors include the likes of Carmen Maria Machado, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, and Melissa Febos, so really, do I need to explain anything more? In the Dream House by Carmen Maria Machado Speaking of Carmen Maria Machado, I think its criminal that two years have passed since Her Body and Other Parties. Am I expected to just not read new work from Carmen Maria Machado for two whole years!? Her previous book was a collection of speculative fiction that explored unapologetic female desire and autonomy. Her latest (out November 5 from Graywolf Press) is a memoir about domestic abuse, in which she struggles to make sense of the damaging relationship in which she found herself, leaning on various narrative tropes in order to unpack events in her life. Plate Tectonics by Margaux Motin Finally, Im looking forward to this graphic memoir (out December 3 from Archaia) in which Motin shares the story of getting divorced, raising a child on her own, andâ¦finding love again? Let me have at it! Of course, these are just the books Im looking forward to! I know. It can be difficult to keep up with all of the new nonfiction books that release each week. But god forbid you let something slip through the cracks! Where to Find New Nonfiction Book Releases I have a few tricks up my sleeve for keeping on top of new and forthcoming nonfiction book releases. Theres our New Releases Index, of course, plus our various book recommendation podcasts and newsletters (including one specifically for new books). I mean, were not called Book Riot for nothing. But I also eyeball new release listings on sites like Publishers Weekly, Barnes Noble, and Amazon. I subscribe to the newsletters for my favorite publishers and for my local independent bookstore. I throw my money at various book subscription boxes and other book subscription services, such as our own TBR. I read every list on every lit site I can. I LEAVE NO STONE UNTURNED.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Media Communications Question 3a. Mass commuincation is the exchanging of information or messages on a large scale to a wide range of people, from individuals to organizational bodies simultaneously. The way in which mass communication is effectively accomplished is a very complex study. These days there are various methods and outlets used to circulate mass media. Particularly the last couple of decades, the Internet has predominantly played a massive role in mass communication, this used in conjunction to newspapers, magazines, radio, television, books and film. Mass media industry was in for significant change post World War Two, researches found mass communication a promising tool to aid change in society. Paul Lazafeld initially developed the Ã¢â¬ËTwo Step Flow of CommunicationÃ¢â¬â¢ during this time, which was to be later defined by Elihu Katz. The two-step flow is essentially the idea that the majority of society forms their opinions from leaders, who have previously been influenced by mass media. (Lazarsf eld Katz, 1955) According to this model, leaders viewpoints have a flow on effect, dispersing from the mass media itself to opinion leaders, then progressing onto the wider population. There have been multiple studies into mass communications which all give evidence how the Ã¢â¬ËTwo Step ModelÃ¢â¬â¢ was a signifcant advance in the role of mass media , this essay will particularly look into three studies, The Peoples Choice study (1944), the War of Worlds (1938) and the DecaturShow MoreRelatedMass Media And Its Impact On The Field Of Communication3001 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesand evolution in the field of communication. It was an era when televisions were introduced. They formed a major source of entertainment, news and advertising. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Collaborative leadership, critical thinking, and ethical and professional practices in teaching special education. Introduction The Special education process is an intensive and carefully planned process that requires collaborative leadership, critical thinking, and extensive professional and ethical practices amongst other core values to execute. These qualities are inculcated in student teachers and teachers during pre and in service trainings respectively, so as to produce professionals who understand what special education is and the implications of having or not having the aforementioned qualities. Special education teacher training programs have trainees undergo intense field experiences that enable them to acquire knowledge and apply skills learnt in order to be effective teachers. A lot is at stake in special education should a teacher be lacking any of the qualities or dispositions. The implications range from legal matters, better school and family relations, and the overall wellbeing of the student. Documents such as the Individualized Education Plans, and the Functional Behavior Analysis etc., req uire utmost confidentiality for the sake of the student and their families. Relationships with colleagues, the administration and the parents require a high level of collaboration and leadership so as to come to leveled, and well-thought conclusions and decisions regarding the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s well being in school, be it socio emotional, intellectual, or physical aspects. TheShow MoreRelatedEssay on Adn vs Bsn Competencies990 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesNurse? Michelle Phoebe Baltazar Grand Canyon University: NRS-430 July 18, 2012 Abstract In this essay the differences between an Associate prepared nurse versus Bachelor prepared nurse is discussed in correlation to critical thinking, professionalism, and leadership. Differences in Competencies: Who Makes a Better Nurse? 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string(41) " as individual training and improvement\." The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) was developed by Kaplan and Norton in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, it is a management system designed to measure the entire performance of a company by measuring all relevant angles of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. BSC requires the company to retain its core financial measurement, but it goes further and expands the measurement to other important business areas. The BSC looks at the entire business from four perspectives, the customer perspective, financial perspective, the internal business process and the learning and growth perspective. We will write a custom essay sample on Pepsi Saudi Arabia or any similar topic only for you Order Now It collects and analyzes data relevant to the company. And it helps managers to get clearer more meaningful picture of their company, which in turn enables them to plan, improve and execute operational goals. The objective of this paper is to advocate the adaptation of BSC by Pepsi Saudi. The strength and economic advantages of BSC and why it would be beneficial to Pepsi Saudi will be extensively discussed in this presentation. PEPSI SAUDI ARABIA: The Pepsi company of Saudi Arabia is comprised of two key divisions based on the western region of the country, one the Saudi International Project Company (SIPCO) and the other is Saudi Fruit Juice and Beverage Industry (SFJBI). This paper will look at this merger and how it could use the BSC methodology to elevate its entire operation and increase its profit margin. BALANCE SCORECARD (BSC). Developed in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s by Kaplan and Norton, balanced scorecard is a business management system that uses measurement to verify strategic plans. It tries to align business operations to the strategies of the business, by measuring the performance of the business in relations to its goals, usually for a given time period. It relies largely on the premise that a business principle or a business function that could be measured could also be improved upon. Ã¢â¬Å"What gets measured gets doneÃ¢â¬ . If a company can establish a measurement system to analyze its performance, then that company can find a way to improve on its performance based on the result of the measurement. Experts generally agree that the companies that take the time to measure their own performance usually does better than the companies who do no possess the tools of measurement. Based on the outcome of a business measurement BSC encourages managers to prioritize their efforts. The BSC does not focus on financial measurements alone, because financial measurement alone can not reveal all the important data needed for long term performance. The balanced scorecard incorporates such business elements based on the customers needs, employees, technology, and other critical elements that could help the company emerge stronger in the future. Essentially BSC takes stock of the whole business. It uses the Ã¢â¬Å"feedback loopÃ¢â¬ to pinpoint all problematic areas and then it develops solutions for them. Managers and employees can then learn from those points that had been identified by the loop. It looks at the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s current position then initiates the necessary strategies for correction. It uses learning, technical innovations and appropriate behavioral shifts and cultural identities to accommodate essential actions for the benefit of the company. BSC also sets aside time to study the applications that have been implemented, and then analyzes the results for effectiveness of those mechanisms or lack of effectiveness. THE FOUR PERSPECTIVES AT A GLANCE: The BSC uses data to articulate performance management with the primary objective being the implementation of corporate strategy. The BSC methodology primarily employs four perspectives: financial, customer, business process perspectives and learning and growth perspectives. It calculates present performance without ignoring the importance of future performance. (1) FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE: The BSC recognizes the importance of financial data, but it does not want the emphasize on financial data to overshadow the other necessary perspectives that deserve equal amount of attention. In BSC adequate, timely and accurate funding are seen as key business requirements. But the BSC methodology goes a little further, it emphasizes that financial data be included in the corporate data base and be available by automation. The BSC method also explores financial risk assessments and cost benefit analysis as part of the data collection in the financial perspective. (This will be discussed in detail in the main body of the study) (2)CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE: The BSC methodology advocates customer focus and satisfaction, it insists that the company must not only satisfy its customers but it must do so without losing money in an attempt to provide superior services or products to those customers. According to the BSC, the customer perspective is a key indicator of the functional health of the company. Poor customer performance is usually an indication of corporate performance in the future. If the customers are not satisfied they will take their businesses somewhere else, and that is an indication of poor business performance in the future. BSC mandates a satisfaction metric to measure the customer satisfaction. The aim is to identify all customer groups, analyze their needs and provide services to them accordingly. But the company cannot afford to lose profitability in an attempt to satisfy its customers. ( This will be discussed in detail in the main body of the study). (3) BUSINESS PROCESS PERSPECTIVE: The BSC defines this as the internal process. It enables the managers to become familiar with the functions of the company, and it services and operations. It makes sure that the products and services meets the requirement of the customers. This is highly internal, i. e the process is preferably developed and handled by corporate managers and workers as who have intimate knowledge of the company, as opposed to consultants who are essentially corporate outsiders. The mission oriented process refers to the functions of government offices, and they could present some unique problems. On the other hand, the support process is more repetitive and generic and therefore easier to measure. (This will be discussed in detail in the main body of the study). (4) LEARNING AND GROWTH PERSPECTIVE: The BSC describes this perspective as employee training in corporate culture as well as individual training and improvement. You read "Pepsi Saudi Arabia" in category "Papers" It sees employees as the mainstay of the corporation. The training would be regular and continuous. The idea is to avoid Ã¢â¬Å"brain drainÃ¢â¬ from the company. So employees would be trained in all new and relevant technologies. Kaplan and Norton emphasized that Ã¢â¬Å"learning is more than trainingÃ¢â¬ , it includes mentors and tutors in the organization. (KaplanNorton 1996). (This will be discussed in detail in the main body of the study). CAN PEPSI SAUDI BENEFIT FROM BSC? To answer that question it is important to know where Pepsi Saudi came from in terms of business its identity and then analyze the reasons it chose to adopt the BSC management module, and then superimpose the analysis on the reports of other corporations that have adopted the BSC. It is worth noting that PepsiÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to join the ranks of companies that have chosen to implement BSC was not made in a vacuum. The fact is that BSC had become a familiar and efficient working module for many successful companies. Also Pepsi Saudi has had its own incredible business and financial success, and by adopting BSC it chose to follow many world class businesses. With the implementation of the balance scorecard methodology, Pepsi Saudi have joined ranks with such business heavyweights as Exxon mobile, British telecommunications worldwide, Hilton hotels, IBM, UPS, Volvofians of Sweden and much more. These are impressive list of companies, and again the decision for them to adopt the balanced scorecard system was not made in a vacuum, because the stakes are too high. On February 2nd 2002 the AME-INFO reported the merger of Saudi industrial projects company (SIPCO) and Saudi Fruit Juice and Beverage industry (SFJBI) in the western region of Saudi Arabia. The reasons for the merger were many, they wanted to expand their command of the beverage industry, and they wanted to remain the best manufacturing operation in the industry. It is not difficult to imagine that Pepsi Saudi would adopt BSC in order to maintain its dominance of the industry. Before the merger it introduced the Pepsi twist (Pepsi taste laced with a twist of lemon) Ã¢â¬Å"in order to satisfy customers demand for something extra in their soft drinkÃ¢â¬ AMEINFO October 8th 2001. It unfolded many ad campaigns designed to capture new customers and retain old ones. The ad campaign targeted all major social events of the kingdom, including football games that featured the stars of the popular sport. As this study will show continue the company has continued to grow under BSC. FRAMEWORK: Because of the success of balance scorecard, there are enormous volumes of information on the practice of BSC, but this study will examine the phenomenon of balance scorecard with Saudi Pepsi as the reference agency. The study will review the book (Translating strategy into action) by Kaplan and Norton as well as many relevant literature on the subject. It is the position of this study that BSC is a genuine business elevator, so this project will make the necessary efforts to present authentic evidence in support of that position. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to outline and analyze the fundamental principles of the Balanced Scorecard system. The paper will trace the formulation of the system and review some of the available data on its effectiveness. Also the paper will make an objective judgement on the advantages and disadvantages of its application. Since this is designed to ascertain the adaptability of BSC to Pepsi of Saudi Arabia, the paper will conclude with a critical insight on how Pepsi could benefit from BSC, based largely on data from the performance review of other corporations that have implemented the BSC management system. QUESTIONS EXPECTED TO BE ADDRESSED BY THIS STUDY: Though questions abound on this study, but this discourse will focus greatly on the matters that address the application, and the structure of Balance Scorecard. The major perspectives as advanced by Kaplan and Norton will be presented and analyzed in depth . It must be emphasized that the system is an objective, responsive system. It could be followed with appropriate data analysis, and adjustments could be made when desirable. The paper will provide the necessary steps that could be followed in order to attain a desired result. Because this dialogue has taken sides in favor of the BSC, it will clearly present the known benefits of implementing the system. But it must be emphasized that there are some drawbacks in the BSC system. Those drawbacks would equally be outlined. All the important steps in the implementation of the BSC will be discussed, and the different roles that different levels of a corporate entity would need to play will be enumerated as well. All of the team members must not only make a commitment, they must participate in the process. Every department must know its participating role in the implementation of BSC, and this work will detail what those roles ought to be, and how to ensure that they are diligently executed. It should also be recognized that it is not enough to design and construct a BSC, the question is would it be used? No benefits would accrue if the built BSC is not used. Of course the most important question is that of the applicability of the system by Pepsi Saudi, that question will be adequately addressed in this process. CHAPTER TWO: BOOK AND LITERATURE ANALYSIS. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT: Before the advent of BSC, a questionnaire by the national association of accountants indicated that about 60% of accountants were Ã¢â¬Å"not satisfied by their performance measurement systemÃ¢â¬ , primarily because of its reliance on purely financial metrics. But since the implementation of BSC that dire view is turning around. (Nevin 2003). Performance measurement technique is used to compile data on many subjects, high school academicians use performance measurement to keep record of behaviors of students whose behaviors required to improvement. The significant point here is that the actual behavior improvement could be measured empirically, scientifically and with discerning accuracy. So it is not surprising that corporations would also adopt performance management system. Corporations use performance measurement to keep record of its effectiveness, and its efficiency. It is used to tabulate quality and productivity. It is also used to keep records of timeliness and safety. (Nevin, Paul 2003). With an effective performance measurement system, companies can a develop a sustainable structure for its strategic planning, and its goals. It helps companies assemble a clear mission, with appropriate resources, on long term intervals. With it companies can maintain accountability for its performance or lack of performance. By using performance measurement companies are better able to analyze and validate its results. It can also use it to acquire timely feedbacks, which could be used to change the direction of a given project or to move a project forward. So in total, performance measurement could help and organization to make informed decisions, to appraise its performance and to initiate an improvement as needed. (Nevin, Paul 2003). I suppose we can say that performance measurement is a close Ã¢â¬Å"cousinÃ¢â¬ of BSC. However a performance measurement system could limit its benefits if it loses sight of key performance drivers. And it could be quite expensive to set-up a performance measuring unit, but most companies seem to agree that the cost is worth it at the long run. (Kaplan Norton 1996). BALANCED SCORECARD, Ã¢â¬Å"DEFINITIONÃ¢â¬ What is scorecard, how can we define scorecard, is it possible to provide a total comprehensive meaning? Scorecard is not a one word definition system, so in order to do justice to the question, what is scorecard, it is necessary to take a comprehensive approach to that question. Ã¢â¬Å"If you can measure it you can manageÃ¢â¬ that is the guiding concept behind the BSC management philosophy. The balanced scorecard system was designed by Kaplan and Norton in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s with the objective of giving managers the tool to look into the long term prospect of their organizations with some measure of reliability. So the BSC is both a management and a measurement tool that when fully and accurately implemented will enable businesses to develop their own vision, and their own strategy, and then translate those business elements into business actions. It is a system that can give businesses an authentic feedback about their internal and external results. And that in turn would enable them to develop a genuine strategy. Since a company with superior strategy and a way of measuring the results of its performance functions do better than companies that do not posses similar tool. (Kaplan Norton 1996). With BSC managers are able to a maintain a clear insight into the operations and management of all business units. It gives the manager the picture that he needs to see how the business is performing when it is compared against the plans, and stated objectives of the business. If a discrepancy is observed between the goals and the actual results, BSC enables practitioners to delve in and correct the noticed discrepancy. And when corrections are made effectively, the business would then redirect the necessary efforts and resources back to the expected reports. It has been abundantly documented that companies that use BSC have a highly accurate and generally dependable view of their entire operations and its performance. BSC does not simply employ financial metrics in its measurements, but it uses customer satisfaction, technical and intellectual innovations, market share and market competition to garner better more reflective and more comprehensive results of company operations and performance. And there are very little doubts that this system is effective for those companies that have designed and executed the system. (Nevin 2003). A comprehensive survey/questionnaire conducted by CIO. Com, Balancedscorecard. org, and Microsoft. com revealed that companies that employ BSC Ã¢â¬Å"have improved their financial and future position in the market placeÃ¢â¬ . (Studentweb. tulane. edu). A study by Nevin 2003 indicates that about 50% of fortune 1000 corporations now have employed some form of BSC management performance metrics. (Nevin 2003). That alone means that all of these companies have used the BSC system to position themselves on a better financial and management future. With BSC organizations are able to articulate a comprehensive strategy towards desired performance, and implementation success. On the whole the BSC system employs tree main systems in order to accomplish its objectives. It uses the measurement system, the strategic management system, and the communication tool. (Nevin 2003). These three factors present only as translation tool to the entire strategy of the BSC business system. The measurement system of BSC uses the Ã¢â¬Å"lead indicatorsÃ¢â¬ to forecast future business environment. It reveals the strategy via long term management that focuses on customer satisfaction, innovation and recognition of potential market competitors. It seeks out innovation for the benefit of superior products. It deploys essential resources in order to capture customers that it would retain for the long run. It looks for realistic ways to retain its customers. And it combines all of those factors for both effectiveness and efficiency. It is the measurement aspect of BSC that fully engages the four perspectives, so these perspectives will be discussed here in a little more detail. The four perspective as have been mentioned on this discourse include the customer perspective, the internal process perspective, and the learning and growth perspectives. CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVES REVISITED: When a business loses the drive to pursue and retain customers, it loses its soul and therefore the right to exist. No business can function, thrive or prosper without a reliable customer base. In the customer perspective theory BSC makes it clear that it is not only essential to know who the target customers are and how a business can better serve that customer base. The BSC identifies three primary ways of providing services to customers in the Balance scorecard system. Operational excellence emphasizes low prices, and convenience ( Nevin 2003). Product leadership focuses on providing the best product in the market. In customer intimacy the business stresses the development of long term relationships with the customer, doing whatever is necessary to know what it is that the customer truly wants. It does so while maintaining as much knowledge as possible of its customers. The reason for these efforts in acquiring superior customer knowledge comes down to the point that the businesses are attempting to provide as much satisfaction to the customers as possible. The other reasons include customer loyalty and the need for more market share. (Balancedscorecard. org. ) INTERNAL PROCESS PERSPECTIVE REVISITED: This area focuses on identification of the things that would need to be done in order to continue to add value to the customers and ultimately to the shareholders (Nevin 2003). The internal process aims to serve the customer and increase the total value of the organization, as well as keep record of the companies progress. The teamÃ¢â¬â¢s objective is primarily to develop better products, to find better ways of manufacturing better products. To find better ways of delivering their products, and to find better ways of delivering better services after the products had been delivered. LEARNING AND GROWTH PERSPECTIVE REVISITED: This may actually be the most important aspect of the entire process. Organizations would get as far as their employees could take them. A team that lacks knowledge may not be able to provide the necessary services required by the customers. Therefore genuine effort must be made to keep employees abreast of necessary information. And that is what the learning and growth perspective tries to define. It emphasizes that information be made available to the employees. It requires the employees skills be as sharp as necessary. It does not want employees to be ignored. Again the key here is that any organization would only go as far as the employees could take it. With adequate care and education, employees can only do better for the company. It is important to point out that the BSC system does not ignore the financial perspective. But the key is that when a company has satisfied the other objectives, that company stand a pretty good chance of doing well financially. BALANCE SCORECARD AS A STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Obviously putting a business and management strategy is important, but no strategy will function if it does not actually get implemented. So the first step in resolving the issue of non-implementation, is to identify what the potential problems towards implementation may be, and then address those issues. According to fortune magazine (1999) about 70% of strategies are poorly executed, so how can it be executed better. Both the team and the management must pay attention to the four barriers: the vision barrier, the people barrier, the resource barrier, and the management barrier. (1) VISION BARRIER: To overcome the vision barrier, employees must not be kept in the dark. The BSC wants management to be very clear as to what the vision is. When possible place a figure on the vision . For instance if the goal is to manufacture products without defects 90 % of the time, then it may be made clearer by stating exactly that. That figure of 90% translates the vision to a level that could not be misunderstood. Give the employees the appropriate knowledge base and strategic structure, that makes the entire strategic objective easier to follow. Management should facilitate a total understanding of the strategy and the whole structure in order to enable all the team members to fully understand the strategy and therefore work towards achieving it as a unit. (Kaplan Norton) (2) PEOPLE BARRIER: In order to overcome the people barrier, BSC outlines a system known as cascading. Essentially it give all of the team members or all of the employees a chance to actually demonstrate exactly how they contribute to their teams objective. The entire system is driven from the top to the bottom. Management would be able to have Ã¢â¬Å"direct line of siteÃ¢â¬ to all levels by implementing the cascade system. the management would need to redesign how it awards incentives. When the focus is on rewarding long term achievement as opposed to short term, employees tend to respond with long term focus, as they work towards achieving the goal. So if long term objectives are created and proper values and incentives placed on them, then the rest of the team would naturally follow. This is an important point because, when employees are rewarded based on short term expectations, then the entire effort would be based on attaining that short term incentive. (3) RESOURCE BARRIER: For the resource barrier, an organization that is genuinely concerned about achieving BSC must allocate adequate budgetary resources to it. To do otherwise would simply be folly. No strategy would get off the ground without real financial commitment. Human and financial resources should be part of the consideration during the planning of the strategy. It just would not make sense not to allocate the necessary resources. (4) MANAGEMENT BARRIER: The last barrier is the management barrier, there is really no doubt that management participation about the importance of an earnest management participation in order for the strategies to work. If management would not show true commitment, then why would the rest of the team. If the team leader is absent why would any one else pay attention. (Nevin 2003). When learning is prescribed as part of the strategy and when accurate evaluation are made based on the numbers from the scorecard, then its easier to read the results and compare them to the original hypothesis. If the report does not measure up to the hypothesis, then a different approach would be necessary. The point is that if all of these four strategic elements are implemented, and the required evaluations are made regularly, the company gives itself stands an excellent chance of reversing course if the numbers indicate so. CRITICAL OBSERVATIONS: It would be unrealistic to think that the entire system would not have some criticisms, and there are some legitimate questions on how effective the system really is. For sure it is an expensive proposal to implement. It requires that management and team leaders must have hands on approach in order to achieve the stated goals. But it is not always easy to have that kind of high level participation. So it could be a problem. (Molleman 2007). Some have argued that it is difficult to relate one measurement to the other. For instance, how could a change in one perspective have a direct correlation to another. It is not quite clear how change in a particular measure would affect another measure. Others have argued that BSC does not address what the appropriate balance ought to be when addressing the stakeholder value. Davidson 2002, reports that the BSC correctly anticipates the value for the shareholders and the customers, but it does not articulate the needs of the employees. It also asserts that the requirement for top management participation centralizes the methodology on the high level management. In a project that requires a good degree of knowledge, Davidson argues that the top-down approach may not be the best. But on the issue of management participation, if the commitment is high enough, then management ought to be able to find the time to allocate to the idea, because the long term benefits could be enormous ,if the system is followed correctly. The point is that the benefits negates the shortcomings. All indication is that BSC is a business method that is worth pursuing, and there are definite measures that could be taken in order to mitigate some of the shortcomings. If an organization follows the directives that were outlined by Kaplan an Norton, then they would have significantly elevated their chances for success in their endeavor. First Kaplan and Norton insists that on the question of wether an organization is applying the right measure of perspectives, they recommend that a stable BSC should have a good balance of both lagging and leading indicators. That would enable them to see a clear picture of not only past efforts but also the plans of the future. A company should not implement too many indicators. Organizations should focus on those indicators that clearly addresses their strategy. So with the correct combination of lagging and leading indicators as well as the correct mixture of the most critical indicators, Kaplan and Norton belief that the organization would do just fine. (Kaplan Norton 1996). They also advised against making a Ã¢â¬Å"quantitative linkÃ¢â¬ between non financial indicators and financial indicators. Since lag time may be influenced by many factors, it is not advisable to link non financial indicators and financial indicators. Also Kaplan and Norton observed that failure would almost be guaranteed if senior management simply dump the system to middle management. Therefore it emphasizes that senior management must remain engaged, it must define the performance measurement, thereby making the objective clear to all levels of the team. It is not enough to have a senior leadership, if the senior leadership is not working with the rest of the team to achieve the objective. All segments of the company or organization would need to be involved in order for the BSC to work as designed. Developing the process does not have to be protracted, because if implementing it becomes too long then strategies may change during this period, and that would not be a good for the process. Therefore they recommend that the development process ought to be short. (Kaplan Norton). It would be inadvisable to use the BSC just for compensation purposes, therefore it is recommended that compensation be linked only when it is involved in translating strategy. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD. The two main phases of BSC are the planning phase and the development phase. Because different organizations operate differently, it may not be realistic to expect companies to follow one particular route to the implementation of the system. But Nevin 2003 drew an implementation Ã¢â¬Å"mapÃ¢â¬ that could aid any organization as it plows through the difficulty of planning and implementation. How to cite Pepsi Saudi Arabia, Papers
Friday, April 24, 2020
Introduction This paper analyzes data of three hundred individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ health records. The data summarizes the diabetes status of the sample and presents their medical, social, physical and economic characteristics. Previous public-health studies have investigated and identified the relationship between variables and the prevalence of diabetes. The results will be compared with the findings of previous research on diabetes.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on The Effect of Physical, Social, and Health Variables on Diabetes specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ten variables used to analyze the results were gender, race, salary, education, height, weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), allergies, family history of diabetes, and family history of allergies. Subsequent sections analyze the relationships between the variables. Analysis The relationship between each variable and diabetes may be observed by comparing the mean valu es for the two groups. Table 1 summarizes the mean values of the numerical variables for participants in the two groups. Table 1: Descriptive Statistics of Numerical Variables Diabetes N Mean Age Yes 109 70.47 No 191 38.95 Salary Yes 109 $70,226.45 No 191 $45,522.11 Height Yes 109 70.42 No 191 65.02 Weight Yes 109 187.87 No 191 142.70 BMI Yes 109 26.524 No 191 23.563 Two findings are deducible from the results presented in the table. The average age of those with diabetes was 70.47. However, those without diabetes had an average age of 38.95 years. This finding is supported by a previous study which reported that the decline in protein synthesis in aging tissues increased the risks of diabetes in older people (Yamamoto, et al., 2014). The effect of income on diabetes is observed in the table. The average salary of those with diabetes is $45,522 and for those without diabetes is $70,226.45. These findings can be compared with previous research that suggeste d low-income earners were more likely to have diabetes than their wealthier counterparts (Lysy, et al., 2013). Although discrepancies can be observed in the mean scores between the two groups, it is important to test the level of significance of these variations. Chi-Square tests and t-tests were used to investigate the significance of the difference in mean values.Ã Table 2 summarizes the results of the Chi-square test. The p-values for salary (0.001), height (0.000), weight (0.000), BMI (0.000), family history of diabetes (0.000), and family history of allergies (0.000) showed the variables were related to diabetes.Advertising Looking for report on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The results are similar to previous studies, which suggest that income (Lipscombe, Austin Manuel, 2010), physical characteristics (Narayan Boyle, 2007), and family history (Uusitupa, Stancakova, Peltonen, Eriksson, 2011) are r elated to diabetes. Table 2: Chi-square values and p-values Chi-Square value p-value Gender .181 .670 Race 2.074 .839 Age 284.542 .152 Salary 289.193 .001 Education 2.897 .408 Height 175.981 .000 Weight 175.981 .000 BMI 163.689 .000 Allergies .010 .922 Family history diabetes 143.728 .000 Family history allergies 166.699 .000 Table 3 summarizes the p-values derived from the t-test. The findings are similar to the p-values derived from the chi-square tests however the p-value for age (0.000) derived from the t-test suggests a significant relationship between age and diabetes (Creatore, Moineddin Booth, 2010). Table 3: t-test values and p-values t-test value p-value Gender -.424 .672 Race -1.44 .885 Age 20.091 .000 Salary 7.794 .000 Education -.336 .737 Height 16.633 .000 Weight 16.331 .000 BMI 14.352 .000 Allergies .098 .922 Family history diabetes -16.555 .000 Family history allergies 19.304 .000 References Creatore, M. I., Moineddin, R., Booth, G. (2010). Age- and sex-related prevalence of diabetes mellitus among immigrants to Ontario, Canada. CMAJ, 182(8), 781-789. Lipscombe, L. L., Austin, P. C., Manuel, D. G. (2010). Income-related differences in mortality among people with diabetes mellitus. CMAJ, 182(1), E1-E17. Lysy, Z., Booth, G., Shah, B., Austin, P., Luo, J., Lipscombe, L. (2013). The impact of income on the incidence of diabetes: a population-based study. Diabetes Research for Clinical Practice, 99(3), 372-379.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on The Effect of Physical, Social, and Health Variables on Diabetes specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Narayan, K. M., Boyle, J. P. (2007). Effect of BMI on lifetime risk for diabetes in the U.S. Diabetes Care, 30(6), 1562-1562. Uusitupa, M. I., Stancakova, A., Peltonen, M., Eriksson, J. G. (2011). Impact of Positive Family History and Genetic Risk Variants on the Incidence of Diabet es. Diabetes Care, 34(2), 418Ã¢â¬â423. Yamamoto, K., Kitano, Y., Shuang, E., Hatakeyama, Y., Sakamoto, Y., Honma, T., Tsuduki, T. (2014). Decreased lipid absorption due to reduced pancreatic lipase activity in aging male mice. Biogerontology, 15(5), 463-473. This report on The Effect of Physical, Social, and Health Variables on Diabetes was written and submitted by user Kailynn Salas to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.